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RangeNet 2001 References
by: Elizabeth Painter

 

·          GENERAL

·          GRAZING SYSTEMS, Savory, HRM

 

 

 

GENERAL

Akersten, W. A., T. M. Foppe, and G. T. Jefferson. 1988. New source of dietary data for extinct herbivores. Quaternary Research 30: 92-97.

Allen, E. B. and M. F. Allen. 1980. Natural re-establishment of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae following stripmine reclamation in Wyoming. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 139–148.

Allen, E. G. and M. F. Allen. 1986. Water relations of xeric grasses in the field: interactions of mycorrhizae and competition. New Phythologist 104: 539–571.

Allen, M. F., W. K. Smith, T. S. Moore, Jr., and M. Christensen. Comparative water relations and photosynthesis of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Bouteloua gracilis H.B.K. Lag ex Steud. New Physiologist 88: 683–693.

Ambos, N. G. Robertson, and J. Douglas. 2000. Dutchwoman Butte: a relict grassland in central Arizona. Rangelands 22(2): 3-8.

Anderson, J. E. 1986. Development and structure of sagebrush steppe plant communities. Pp. 10-12 in P. J. Joss, P. W. Lynch, and O. B. Williams (editors), Rangelands: A Resource under Siege. Proc.2nd International Rangeland Congress. Australian Acad. Science, Canberra

Anderson, J. E. and K. E. Holte. 1981. Vegetation development over 25 years without grazing on sagebrush dominated rangeland in southeastern Idaho. Journal of Range Management 34: 25-29

Anderson, J. R., R. W. Merritt, and E. C. Loomis. 1984. The insect-free cattle dropping and its relationship to increased dung fouling of rangeland pastures. Journal of Economic Entomology 77(1): 133–141.

Andrew, M. H. 1988. Grazing impacts in relation to livestock watering points. Trends in Research in Ecology and Evolution 3:336–339.

Armour, C. L., D. A. Duff and W. Elmore. 1991. The effects of livestock grazing on riparian and stream ecosystems. Fisheries 16(1): 7–11.

Athearn, F. J. 1982. An Isolated Empire: A History of Northwestern Colorado. USDI B. L.M, Denver. 3rd ed. Cultural Resource Series No 2

Athearn, F. J. 1988. Habitat in the Past: Historical Perspectives of Riparian Zones on the White River. USDI B. L.M, Denver. Cultural Resources Series No 23

Axelrod, D. I. 1976. History of the coniferous forests, California and Nevada. University of California Publications in Botany 70: 1-62

Baker, H. G. 1965. Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds Pp. 147–172 in H. G. Baker and G. L. Stebbins (editors), The Genetics of Colonizing Species. Academic Press, NY.

Baker, H. G. 1974. The evolution of Weeds. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5: 1-24.

Baker, H. G. 1978. Invasion and replacement of Californian and neotropical grasslands. Pp. 368-384 in J. R. Wilson (editor), Plant Relations in Pastures. CSIRO, East Melbourne, Australia.

Baker, H. G. 1986. Patterns of plant invasion in North America. Pp. 96-110 in Mooney, H. A. and J. A. Drake. (editors), Ecology of Biological Invasions of North American and Hawaii. Springer-Verlag, NY

Baker, H. G. 1989. Sources of the naturalized grasses and herbs in California. In: L. F. Huenneke and H. Mooney (editors), Grassland Structure and Function in California Annual Grasslands. Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Baker, H. G. 1992. Letter to the Editor. Fremontia 20(3): 32-33.

Baker, H. K. 1957. Studies on the root development of herbage plants. II. The effect of cutting on the root and stubble development, and herbage production of spaced perennial ryegrass plants. Journal of the British Grassland Society 12: 116-126.

Banner, R. E. 1992. Vegetation types of Utah. Rangelands 14: 109-114

Barrett, R. H. 1982. Habitat preferences of feral hogs, deer, and cattle on a Sierra foothill range. Journal of Range Management 35(3): 342-346.

Baume, B. R. 1967. Introduced and naturalized tamarisks (Tamaricaceae) in the United States and Canada. Baileya 15: 19-25.

Belnap, J. 1990. Microbiotic crusts: their role in past and present ecosystems. Park Science 10:3-4

Belnap, J. 1992. Potential role of cryptobiotic soil crusts in semiarid rangelands. Symposium on Ecology, Management, and Restoration of Intermountain Annual Rangelands, Boise, ID

Belnap, J. 1993. Potential roles of cryptobiotic soil crusts in semi-arid rangelands. In S. Monsen (editor), Proceedings — Symposium on Ecology and Revegetation of Range lands Infested with Annual Weeds. USDA FS Gen. Tech. Report INT ___, Intermountain Res. Sta., Ogden, UT

Belnap, J. 1993. Recovery rates of cryptobiotic soil crusts: assessment of artificial inoculants and methods of evaluation. Great Basin Nat 53: 89-95

Belnap, J. 1994a. Cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts of San Nicolas Island. Pp. 491–495 in W. L. Halvorson and G. J. Maender, The Fourth California Islands Symposium: Update on the Status of Resources. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, CA.

Belnap, J. 1994b. Potential role of cryptobiotic soil crusts in semiarid rangelands. Pp. 179–185 in S. B. Monsen and S. G. Kitchen (compilers), Proceedings — Ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands. General Technical Report INT-GTR-313. USDA Forest Service Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.

Belnap, J. and J. S. Gardner. 1993. Soil microstructure in soils of the Colorado Plateau: the role of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus. Great Basin Naturalist 53: 40–47.

Belnap, J. R. Rosentreter, S. Leonard, J. H. Kaltenecker, J. Williams, and D. Eldridge. 2001. Biological soil crusts: ecology and management. Technical Reference 1730-2. USDA B. L.M National Science and Technology Center Information and Communications Group, P.O. Box 25047, Denver, CO 80225-0047

Belnap, J., K. T. Harper, and S. D. Warren. 1994. Surface disturbance of cryptobiotic soil crusts: nitrogenase activity, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll degradation. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 8: 108.

Belsky, A. J. 1986. Does herbivory benefit plants: a review of the evidence. Am Nat 127: 870-892.

Belsky, A. J. 1987. The effects of grazing: confounding ecosystem, community, and organism scales. Am Nat 129: 777-782.

Belsky, A. J. 1992. Letter to the Editor. Fremontia 20(3): 30-31.

Belsky, A. J. 1996. Viewpoint: western juniper expansion: is it a threat to arid northwestern ecosystems? Journal of Range Management 49: 53–59

Belsky, A. J. and D. M. Blumenthal. 1995. Effects of livestock grazing on upland forests, stand dynamics, and soils of the interior west. Oregon Natural Resources Council, Portland, OR

Belsky, A. J. and D. M. Blumenthal. 1997. Effects of livestock grazing on stand dynamics and soils in upland forests of the interior West. Conservation Biology 11: 315-327.

Belsky, A. J. and J. L. Gelbard. 2000. Livestock grazing and weed invasions in the arid West. Oregon Natural Desert Association, 732 SW 3rd Ave #407, Portland, OR 97204.

Belsky, A. J., A. Malzke, and S. Uselman. 1999. Survey of livestock influences on stream and riparian ecosystems in the western United States. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation First Quarter 1999 419-431.

Belsky, A. J., W. P. Carson, C. L. Jensen, and G. A. Fox. 1993. Overcompensation by plants: herbivore optimization or red herring? Evolutionary Ecology 7: 109-121.

Bergelson, J. 1990. Live after death: Site pre-emption by the remains of Poa annua. Ecology 71: 2137-2163.

Bergelson, J. and M. J. Crawley. 1992a. Herbivory and Ipomopsis aggregata: the disadvantages of being eaten. Am Nat 139: 870-882.

Bergelson, J. and M. J. Crawley. 1992b. The effects of grazers on the performance of individuals and populations of scarlet gilia, Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 90: 435-444.

Bergelson, J., J. A. Newman, and E. M. Floreroux. 1993. Rates of weed spread in spatially heterogeneous environments. Ecology 74: 999-1011.

Betancourt, J. L. 1984. Late Quaternary plant zonation and climate in southeastern Utah. Great Basin Nat 44: 1-35

Betancourt, J. L. 1987. Paleoecology of pinyon-juniper woodlands: summary. Pp. 129-139 in R. L. Everett (compiler), Proceedings — Pinyon-Juniper Conference. Gen. Tech. Report INT-215. USDA FS Intermountain Res. Sta., Ogden, UT

Bethlenfalvay, G. J. and S. Dakessian. 1984. Grazing effects on mycorrhizal colonization and floristic composition of the vegetation on a semiarid range in northern Nevada. Journal of Range Management 37: 312-316

Bethlenfalvay, G. J. S. Dakessian, and R. S. Pacovsky. 1984. Mycorrhizae in a southern California desert: ecological implications. Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 519-524.

Bethlenfalvay, G.J. and S. Dakessian. 1984. Grazing effects on mycorrhizal colonization and floristic composition of the vegetation on a semiarid range in Northern Nevada. Journal of Range Management 37(4): 312-316.

Beymer, R. J. and J. M. Klopatek. 1992. Effects of grazing on cryptogamic crusts in pinyon-juniper woodlands in Grand Canyon National Park. American Midland Naturalist 127: 139-148.

Billings, W. D. 1949. The shadscale zone of Nevada and eastern California in relation to climate and soils. American Midland Naturalist 42: 87-109

Billings, W. D. 1970. Plants, Man, and the Ecosystem. Second edition. Wadsworth Publ. Co., Belmont, CA.

Billings, W. D. 1990. Bromus tectorum, a biotic cause of ecosystem impoverishment in the Great Basin. Pp. 301-322 in G. M. Woodwell (editor), The Earth in Transition: Patterns and Processes of Biotic Impoverishment. Cambridge Univ. Press, NY

Billings, W. D. 1990. Bromus tectorum, a biotic cause of ecosystem impoverishment in the Great Basin. Pp. 301-322 in GM Woodwell (editor), The Earth in Transition: Patterns and Processes of Biotic Impoverishment. Cambridge Univ. Press, NY

Billings, W .D. 1994. Ecological impacts of cheatgrass and resultant fire on ecosystems in the western Great Basin. Pp. 22–30 in S. B. Monsen and S.G. Kitchen (compilers), Proceedings — Ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands. General Technical Report INT-GTR-313. USDA Forest Service Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.

Bock, C. E. and J. H. Bock. 1993. Cover of perennial grasses in southeastern Arizona in relation to livestock grazing. Conservation Biology 7: 371-377.

Bock, C. E. and J. H. Bock. 1999. Response of winter birds to drought and short-duration grazing in southeastern Arizona. Conservation Biology 13: 1117-1123.

Bock, C. E., J. H. Bock, W. R. Kenney, and V. M. Hawthorne. 1984. Response of birds, small mammals, and vegetation to livestock exclosure in a semidesert grassland site. Journal of Range Management 37: 239-242

Bock, C. E., V. A. Saab, T. D. Rich, and D. S. Dobkin. 1993. Effects of livestock grazing on neotropical migratory landbirds in western North America. Pp. 296-309 in D. M. Finch and P. W. Stangel (editors), Status and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds. USDA FS Rocky Mountain Res. Sta., Ft Collins, CO. Gen. Tech. Report RM-229

Bock, C. E., J. H. Bock, and H. M. Smith 1993. Proposal for a system of federal livestock exclosures on public rangelands in the western United States. Conservation Biology 7: 371-377.

Bookman, P. A. 1980. Variation in Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) in eastern Washington. Madroño 27: 36-42

Bookman, P. A. 1983. Microsite utilization by Bromus tectorum L. and Poa pratensis L. in a meadow steppe community. Oecologia 56: 413-318

Braun, C. E., K. W. Harmon, J. A. Jackson, and C. D. Littlefield. 1978. Management of national wildlife refuges in the United States: its impacts on birds. Wilson Bull 90: 309-321

Brotherson, J. D. and D. Field. 1987. Tamarix: Impacts of a successful weed. Rangelands 9(3): 110-112.

Brotherson, J. D., S. R. Rushforth, and J. R. Johansen. 1983. Effects of long-term grazing on cryptogam crust cover in Navajo National Monument, Ariz. Journal of Range Management 36: 579-581.

Buckhouse, J. .C and G. F. Gifford. 1976. Water quality implications of cattle grazing on a semi-arid watershed in southeastern Utah Journal of Range Management 29: 109-113

Buckhouse, J. C, R. W. Knight, and J. M. Skovlin. 1979. Some erosional and water quality responses to selected animal grazing practices in northeastern Oregon. Pp. 13-22 in Proceedings of the Oregon Academy of Science. Vol. XV

Burnside, O. C., R. G. Wilson, S. Weisberg, and K. G. Hubbard. 1996. Seed longevity of 41 weed species buried 17 years in eastern and western Nebraska. Weed Science 44: 74-86.

Cabin, R. J. S. G. Weller, D. H. Lorence, T. W. Flynn, A. K. Sakai, D. Sandquist, and L. J. Hadway. 2000. Effects of long-term ungulate exclusion and recent alien species control on the preservation and restoration of a Hawaiian tropical dry forest. Conservation Biology 14: 439-453.

Callicott, J. B., L. D. Crowder, and K. Mumford. Current normative concepts in conservation. Conservation Biology 13: 22-35.

Caro, T. M. and G. O’Doherty. 1999. On the use of surrogate species in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 13: 805-814.

Carrillo-Garcia, J. L., L. de la Luz, Y. Bashan, and G. J. Bethlenfalvay. 1999. Native plants, mycorrhizae, and plant establishment in a disturbed area of the Sonora Desert. Restoration Ecology 7: 321-335.

Carrier, W. D. and B. Czech. 1996. Threatened and endangered wildlife and livestock interactions. Pp. 39-47 in P. R. Krausman (editor), Rangeland Wildlife. Soc. Range Mgmt, Denver

Chaney, E., W. Elmore, and W. S. Platts. 1993. Managing change: livestock grazing on western riparian areas. (for US Environmental Protection Agency) Northwest Resource Information Center, Inc., Eagle, ID

Cheeke, P. R. 1995. Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock. Journal of Animal Science. 73: 909-918.

Christensen, E. M. and H. B. Johnson. 1964. Presettlement vegetation in three valleys in central Utah. Brigham Young University Bulletin, Biol. Serv. 4: 5-15

Christensen, E. M. and S. L. Welsh. 1963. Presettlement vegetation of western Summit and Wasatch Counties, Utah. Proceedings of Utah Academy of Science., Arts, and Letters 40: 163-174

Christensen, N. L., A. M. Bartuska, J. H. Brown, S. Carpenter, C. D'Antonio, R. Francis, J. F. Franklin, J. A. MacMahon, R. F. Noss, D. J. Parsons, C. H. Peterson, M. G. Turner, and R. G. Woodmansee. 1996. The report of the Ecological Society of America committee on the scientific basis for ecosystem management. Ecological Applications 6: 665–691.

Clary, W. P. 1986. Fifty-year response to grazing in the low-shrub cold desert of the Great Basin, USA. Pp. 37-38, in P. J. Joss, PW Lynch, and D. B. Williams (editors), Rangelands: A Resource under Siege. Proceedings of 2nd International Rangeland Congress, Australian Acad. Science., Canberra

Clary, W. P. 1995. Vegetation and soil responses to grazing simulation on riparian meadows. Journal of Range Management 48: 18-25

Clary, W. P. and BF Webster. 1990. Riparian grazing guidelines for the Intermountain Region. Rangelands 12: 209-212

Clary, W. P. and G. D. Booth. 1993. Early season utilization of mountain meadow riparian pastures. Journal of Range Management 46: 493-497

Clary, W. P. and W. C. Leininger. 2000. Stubble height as a tool for management of riparian areas. Journal of Range Management 53: 562-573.

Clary, W. P. and D. E. Madin. 1990. Differences in vegetation biomass and structure due to cattle, grazing in a northern Nevada riparian ecosystem. USDA FS Intermountain Res. Sta., Ogden, UT. Gen. Tech. Report INT-427

Clary, W. P. and B. F. Webster. 1989. Managing grazing of riparian areas in the Intermountain Region. USDA FS Intermountain Res. Sta., Ogden, UT. Gen. Tech. Report INT-263

Clary, W. P., CI Thornton, and S. R. Abt. 1996. Riparian stubble height and recovery of degraded streambanks. Rangelands 18: 137-140

Cline, J. F., D. W. Uresk, and W Ricard. 1977. Comparison of soil water used by a sagebrush-bunchgrass and cheatgrass community. Journal of Range Management 30: 199-201

Cole, K. L. and G-W Liu. 1994. Holocene paleoecology of an estuary on Santa Rosa Island, California. Quaternary Research 41: 326-335.

Cooper, C. F. 1953. Amounts of big sagebrush in plant communities near Tensleep, Wyoming, as influenced by grazing treatment. Ecology 34: 186-189

Cottarn, W. P. and F. R. Evans. 1945. A comparative study of the vegetation of grazed and ungrazed canyons of the Wasatch Range, Utah. Ecology 26: 171-181

Cottam, W. P. and G. Stewart. 1940. Plant succession as a result of grazing and of meadow desiccation by erosion since settlement in 1862. Journal of Forestry 38: 613-626

Crawley, M. J. 1987. Benevolent Herbivores? Trends in Research in Ecology and Evolution 2(6): 167-168.

Cronk, Q. C. B. and J. L. Fuller. 1995. Plant Invaders: The Threat to Natural Ecosystems. Chapman and Hall, London.

Cronquist, A., A. H. Holmgren, N. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal, and P. K Holmgren. Intermountain flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Volume 6: The Monocotyledons. Columbia University Press, NY.

D’Antonio, C. M. and K. Haubensak. 1998. Community and ecosystem impacts of introduced species. Fremontia 26(4): 13-18.

Daubenmire, R. 1975. Floristic plant geography of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Journal of Biogeography 2: 1-18

Daubenmire, R. F. and W. E. Colwell. 1942. Some edaphic changes due to overgrazing in the Agropyron-Poa prairie of southeastern Washington. Ecology 23: 32-40

de Clerck-Floate, R. 1997. Cattle as dispersers of hound’s-tongue on rangeland in southeastern British Columbia. Journal of Range Management 50: 239-243.

De Gouvenain, R. C. 1996. Origin, history and current range of saltcedar in the U.S. In J. DiTomaso and C. E. Bell (editors) Proceedings: The Saltcedar Management Workshop June 12, 1996 (FWS Web site)

DeByle, N. V. 1985. Animal impacts. Pp. 115-123 in N. V. DeByle and R. P. Winokur (editors), Aspen: Ecology and Management in the Western United States. USDA FS Gen. Tech. Report RM-119. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Ft Collins, CO

Detling, J. K. and E. L. Painter. 1983. Defoliation response of western wheatgrass populations with diverse histories of prairie dog grazing. Oecologia 57: 65-71

Detling, J. K., E. L. Painter, and D. L. Coppock. 1986. Ecotypic differentiation resulting from grazing pressure: evidence for a likely phenomenon. Pp. 431-433, in P. J. Joss, P. W. Lynch, and D. B. Williams (editors), Rangelands: A Resource under Siege. Proceedings of 2nd International Rangeland Congress. Australian Acad. Science., Canberra

Dickman, L. A., A. E. Liberta, and R. C. Anderson. 1984. Ecological interaction of little bluestem and vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 2272–2277.

Dobkin, D. S., A. C. Rich, and W. H. Pyle. 1998. Habitat and avifaunal recovery from livestock grazing in a riparian meadow system of the northwestern Great Basin. Conservation Biology 12(1): 209-221.

Doerr, T. B., E. F. Redente, and F. B. Reeves. 1984. Effects of soil disturbance on plant succession and levels of mycorrhizal fungi in a sagebrush-grassland community. Journal of Range Management 37: 135-139.

Donahue, D. L. 1999. The Western Range Revisited: Removing Livestock from Public Lands to Conserve Native Biodiversity. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

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Eininger, S., P. J. Glechman, D. A. Hull, P. R. Nickens, A. D. Reed, and D. D. Scott. 1982. Archaeological Resources in Southwestern Colorado. USDI B. L.M, Denver. Cultural Resources Series No 13

Eissenstat, D. M., J. E. Mitchell, and W. W. Pope. 1982. Trampling damage by cattle on northern Idaho forest plantations. Journal of Range Management 35: 715-716

Ellison, L. 1960. The influence of grazing on plant succession. Botanical Review 26: 1-17.

Elmore, W. and B. Kauffman. 1994. Riparian and watershed systems: degradation and restoration. Pp. 212-231 in M. Vavra, W. A. Laycock, and R. D. Pieper (editors), Ecological Implications of Livestock Herbivory in the West. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

Engel, R. K. J. T. Nichols, J. L. Dodd, and J. E. Brummer. 1998. Root and shoot responses of sand bluestem to defoliation. Journal of Range Management 51: 42-46.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1993. Monitoring protocols to evaluate water quality effects of grazing management on western rangeland streams. EPA 910/R-93-017. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Water Division, Surface Water Branch, Region 10, Seattle, WA.

Ertter, B. and B. Moseley. 1992. Floristic regions of Idaho. Journal of Idaho Academy of Science 28: 57-70

Farmer, A.M. 1993. The effects of dust on vegetation — a review. Environmental Pollution 78: 63-73.

Fitter, A. 1989. Effects of herbivores on plants. Trends in Research in Ecology and Evolution 4: 213-214.

Fitzgerald, R. D., R. J. Hudson, and A. W. Bailey. 1986. Grazing preferences of cattle in regenerating aspen forest. Journal of Range Management 39: 13-18

Fleischner, T. L. 1994. Ecological costs of livestock grazing in western North America. Conservation Biology 8:629–644.

Fletcher, J. E. and W. P. Martin. 1948. Some effects of algae and molds in the rain-crust of desert soils. Ecology 29: 95-100

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 1. Introduction. Oxford University Press, New York.

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Fuller, T. C. and E. McClintock. 1986. Poisonous Plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Galt, D., G. Mendez, J. Holechek, and J. Joseph. 1999. Heavy winter grazing reduces forage production: an observation. Rangelands 21(4): 18-21.

Galt, D., F. Molinar, J. Navarro, J. Joseph, and J. Holechek. 2000. Grazing capacity and stocking rate. Rangelands 22: 7-9.

Ganskopp, D. and M. Vavra. 1987. Slope use by cattle, feral horses, deer, and bighorn sheep. Northwest Science 61:74–81.

Gillis, A. M. 1991. Should cows chew cheatgrass on commonlands? BioScience 41(10): 668–675.

Godlstein, P. Z. 1999. Functional ecosystems and biodiversity buzzwords. Conservation Biology 13: 247-255.

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Goguen, C. B. and N. E. Mathews. 2000. Local gradients of cowbird abundance and parasitism relative to livestock grazing in a western landscape. 2000. Conservation Biology 14: 1862-1869.

Grayson, D. K. 1993. The Desert's Past: A Natural Prehistory of the Great Basin. Smithsonian Institution Press, Wash, DC

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Habeck, J. R. 1990. Old-growth ponderosa pine-western larch forests in western Montana. ecology and management. Northwest Environmental Journal 6: 271–292.

Hagberg, T. D. 1995. Relationships between hydrology, vegetation and gullies in montane meadows of the Sierra Nevada. M.S. Thesis. Humboldt State University, California.

Hall, F. C. and L. Bryant. 1995. Herbaceous stubble height as a warning of impending cattle grazing damage to riparian areas. Gen. Tech. Report PNW-GTR-362. USDA Forest Service Pacific NW Res. Sta.

Hamilton, J. G. 1997. Changing perceptions of pre-European grasslands in California. Madroño 44(4): 311-333.

Harper, K. T. and J. R. Marble. 1988. A role for nonvascular plants in management of semiarid rangelands. Pp. 189-221 in P. T. Tueller (editor), Vegetation Science Applications for Rangeland Analysis and Management. Kluwer Academic Publ., London.

Harper, K. T. and R. L. Pendleton. 1993. Cyanobacteria and cyanolichens: can they enhance availability of essential minerals for higher plants: Great Basin Naturalist 53: 59-72.

Harradine, A. R. and R. D. B. Whalley. 1981. A comparison of the root growth, root morphology, and root response to defoliation of Aristida ramosa R.Br. and Danthonia linkii Kunth. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 32: 565-574.

Herrera, C. M. 1982. Grasses, grazers, mutualism, and co-evolution: a comment. Oikos 38: 254-258.

Hetrick, B. A. D., G. W. T. Wilson, and C. E. Owensby. 1989. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi and fertilization on big bluestem seedling biomass. Journal of Range Management 42: 213–216.

Higgins, C. G. 1982. Grazing-step terracettes and their significance. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, New Series 26: 459-472.

Hironaka, M. 1994. Medusahead: natural successor to the cheatgrass type in the northern Great Basin. Pp. 89-91 in SB Monsen and SG Kitchen (compilers), Proceedings – Ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands. Gen. Tech. Report INT-GTR-313. USDA FS Intermountain RES Sta., Ogden, UT

Holechek, J. L. 1988. An approach for setting the stocking rate. Rangelands 10:10–14.

Holechek, J. L. and D. Galt. 2000. Grazing intensity guidelines. Rangelands 22(3): 11-14.

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Holmgren, N. H. 1972. Plant geography in the Intermountain Region. Pp. 77-161 in A Cronquist, AH Holmgren, NH Holmgren, and JL Reveal. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, Vol. 1

Hourdequin, M. 2000. Special section: ecological effects of roads. Conservation Biology 14: 15-17.

Hughes, L. E. 1993. “The devil’s own” -- Tamarisk. Rangelands 15: 151-155.

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Hull, A. C. Jr. and M. K. Hull. 1974. Presettlement vegetation of Cache Valley, Utah and Idaho. Journal of Range Management 27: 27-29

Hurlbett, R. E. 1976. Environmental Constraint and Settlement Predictability, Northwestern Colorado. USDI B. L.M Colorado. Cultural Resource Series No 3

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Jeffries, D. L. and J. M. Klopatek. 1987. Effects of grazing on the vegetation of the blackbrush association. Journal of Range Management 40: 390-392

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GRAZING SYSTEMS, Savory, HRM

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Balph, D. F., M. H. Balph, and J. C. Malechek. Cues cattle use to avoid stepping on crested wheatgrass tussocks. Journal of Range Management 42: 376-377

Balph, D. F. and J. C. Malechek. 1985. Cattle trampling of crested wheatgrass under short-duration grazing. Journal of Range Management 38: 226-227

Barnes. D. L. and R. P. Denny. 1991. A comparison of continuous and rotational grazing on veldt at two stocking rates. Tydskrif Weidingsveren. S. Afr. (J. Grassl. Soc. South Afr.) 8(4): 168-173

Bartolome, J. 1989. Review of Holistic Resource Management by Allan Savory. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 44: 591-592.

Bartolome, J. W. 1984. Effects of grazing intensity and specialized grazing systems on vegetation productivity and composition. Pp. 917-926, in Committee on Developing Strategies for Rangeland Management, US National Acad. Science. and National Res. Council, Developing Strategies for Rangeland Management. Westview Special Studies in Agr. Mgmt. Westview Press, Boulder, CO

Bertelsen, G. S., D. B. Faulkner, D. D. Buskirk, and J. W. Castree. 1993. Beef cattle performance and forage characteristics of continuous, 6-paddock, and 11-paddock grazing systems. Journal of Animal Science: 71: 1381-1389

Bock, C. E. and J. H. Bock. 1999. Response of winter birds to drought and short-duration grazing in southeastern Arizona. Conservation Biology 13: 1117-1123.

Bryant, F. C., B. E. Dahl, R. D. Pettit, and C. M. Britton. 1989. Does short-duration grazing work in arid and semiarid regions? Journal of Soil and Water Conserv. (July-Aug): 290-296

Burleson, W. H. and W. C. Leininger. 1988. Intensive grazing -- precautions. Rangelands 10: 186-188

Denny, R. P., D. L. Barnes, and T. C. D. Kennan. 1977. Trials of multi-paddock grazing systems on veldt. 1. An exploratory trial of systems involving twelve paddocks and one herd. Rhod. J. Agr. Res. 15: 11-23

Denny, R. P., D. L. Barnes, and T. C. D. Kennan. 1977. Trials of multi-paddock grazing systems on veldt. 2. A comparison of a 16-paddocks-to-one-herd system with a four-paddocks-to-one-herd system using breeding cows. Rhod. J. Agr. Res. 15: 119-127

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Dormaar, J. F., S. Smoliak, and W. D. Willms. 1989. Vegetation and soil responses to short-duration grazing on fescue grasslands. Journal of Range Management 42: 252-256

Gammon, D. M. 1984. An appraisal of short duration grazing as a method of veldt management. Zimbabwe Agr. J. 81: 59-64

George, M. R., R. S. Knight, PB Sands, and M. W. Demment. 1989. Intensive grazing increases beef production. California Agr. 43(5): 16-19

Gillen, R. L., F. T. McCollum, M. E. Hodges, J. E. Brummer, and K. W. Tate. 1991. Plant community responses to short duration grazing in tallgrass prairie. Journal of Range Management 44: 124-128

Gillen, R. L., F. T. McCollum, M. E. Hodges, and K. W. Tate. 1992. Livestock response to grazing systems and stocking rate on tallgrass prairie. Oklahoma State Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Animal Science Res. Report MP-136

Hart, R. H., J. Bissio, M. J. Samuel, and J. W. Waggoner, Jr. 1993. Grazing systems, pasture size and cattle grazing behavior, distribution and gains. Journal of Range Management 46: 81-87

Hart, R. H., S. Clap, and P. S. Test. 1993. Grazing strategies, stocking rates, and frequency and intensity of grazing on western wheatgrass and blue grama. Journal of Range Management 46: 1993

Hart, R. H. M. J. Samuel, P. S. Test, and MA Smith. 1988. Cattle, vegetation, and economic responses to grazing systems and grazing pressure. Journal of Range Management 41: 282-286

Hart, R. H., M. J. Samuel, J. W. Waggoner Jr., and M. A. Smith. 1991. Grazing systems in Wyoming — impacts of grazing pressure and livestock distribution. Rangelands 13: 12-16

Hepworth, K. W., P. S. Test, R. H. Hart, J. W. Waggoner, Jr. and M. A. Smith. 1991. Grazing systems, stocking rates, and cattle behavior in southeastern Wyoming. Journal of Range Management 44: 259-262

Heady, H. F.1961. Continuous vs. specialized grazing systems: a review and application to the California annual type. Journal of Range Management 14: 182-193

Heady, H. F. and M. D. Pitt. 1979. Seasonal vs. continuous grazing on annual vegetation of northern California rangelands. Rangelands 1: 231-232

Heitschmidt, R. K., S. L. Dowhower, and J. W. Walker. 1986. 14- vs 42-paddock rotational grazing: aboveground biomass dynamics, forage production, and harvest efficiency. Journal of Range Management 40: 216-223

Hepworth, K. W., P. S. Test, R. H. Hart, J. W. Waggoner, Jr. and MA Smith. 1991. Grazing systems, stocking rates, and cattle behavior in southeastern Wyoming Journal of Range Management 44: 259-262

Holechek, J. L. H. Gomes, F. Molinar, D. Galt, and R. Valdez. 2000. Short-duration grazing: the facts in 1999. Rangelands 22(1): 18-22.

Kovalchik, B. L. and W. Elmore. 1992. Effects of cattle grazing systems on willow-dominated plant associations in central Oregon. Pp. 111-119, in W. P. Clary, ED McArthur, D. Beduah, and C. L. Wambolt (compilers), Proceedings — Symposium on Ecology and Management of Riparian Shrub Communities. USDA FS Intermountain Res. Sta., Ogden, UT. Gen. Tech. Report INT-89

McKown, C. D., J. W. Walker, J. W. Stuth, and R. K. Heitschmidt. 1991. Nutrient intake of cattle on rotational and continuous grazing treatments. J. Range Mgmt 44: 596-601

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Parker, E. E., G. B. Donart, R. D. Pieper, JD Wallace, and JD Wright,. 1987. Responses of range beef cattle to different grazing management systems. New Mexico State Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull 732. Las Cruces, NM

Parsch, L. D., WM Watts, and OJ. Loewer. 1989. An evaluation of fixed versus variable rotational grazing under weather uncertainty using simulation. XVI Intl Grassland Congr. Nice, France

Pieper, R. D. and R. K. Heitschmidt. 1988. Is short-duration grazing the answer? Journal of Soil and Water Conservation (Mar-April): 133-137

Pitt, M. D. and H. F. Heady. 1979. The effects of grazing intensity on annual vegetation. Journal of Range Management 32: 109-114

Pitts, J. S. and F. C. Bryant. 1987. Steer and vegetation response to short duration and continuous grazing. Journal of Range Management 40: 386-389

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Ratliff, R. D. 1986. Cattle responses to continuous and seasonal grazing in California annual grassland. Journal of Range Management 39: 482-485

Salhi, D. O. and B. E. Norton. 1987. Survival of perennial grass seedlings under intensive grazing in semi-arid rangelands. Journal of Applied Ecology 24: 145-151

Scott, C. B., W. H. Schacht, and C. S. McCown. 1993. Response of herbaceous vegetation to short duration grazing in central West Texas. Texas J. Agr Nat Resources 6: 1-9

Stuth, J. W., P. S. Grose, and L. R. Roath. 1987. Grazing dynamics of cattle stocked at heavy rates in a continuous and rotational grazed system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 19: 1-9

Taylor, C. A., Jr., 1989. Short-duration grazing: experiences from the Edwards Plateau region in Texas. Journal of Soil and Water Conserv. (July-Aug): 297-302

Walker, B. H., D. Ludwig, C. S. Holling, and R. M. Peterman. 1981. Stability of semi-arid savanna grazing systems. Journal of Ecology 69: 473-498

Walker, J. W. and R. K. Heitschmidt. 1989. Some effects of a rotational grazing treatment on cattle grazing behavior. Journal of Range Management 42: 337-342

Warren, S. D. 1987. Soil hydrologic response to intensive rotation razing: a state of knowledge. Pp. 488-501 in Y. S. Fok (editor), Infiltration Development and Application. Pre-conference proceedings of the International Conference on Infiltration Development and Application. Water Resources Research Center, Univ. Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu

Warren, S. D., W. H. Blackburn, and C. A. Taylor Jr. 1986. Effects of season and stage of rotation cycle on hydrologic condition of rangeland under intensive rotation grazing. Journal of Range Management 39: 491-495

Warren, S. D., T. L. Thurow, W. H. Blackburn, and N. E. Garza. 1986. The influence of livestock trampling under intensive rotation grazing on soil hydrologic characters. J Journal of Range Management 39: 491-495

Weltz, M., M. K. Wood, and E. E .Parker. 1989. Flash grazing and trampling: effects on infiltration rates and sediment yield on a selected New Mexico range site. Journal of Arid Environments 16: 95-100

Willms, W. D., S Smoliak, and J. F. Dormaar. 1990. Vegetation response to time-controlled grazing on mixed and fescue prairie. Journal of Range Management 43: 513-517