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Impact of Grazing on 153 Species of Southwestern Birds
Compiled by: Larry Walker
April 2002

A Report Prepared for Western Watersheds Project, Inc.

I examined New Mexico's "Biota Information System of New Mexico" (BISON-M) in July, 2000, for all species of birds contained in that database, and at that time, to determine the expected impact of grazing by domestic livestock on those birds. Of all birds then in the database, 153 were shown to be impacted in some manner by grazing. The following tables summarize the results of that examination which are so dramatic that I do not believe any additional narrative is necessary.

Table 1: Impacts of Livestock Grazing on 153 Species of Southwestern Birds Summarized
Impact Class (click link for list) Species in Class State Listed Species in Class a Percent of Total (all classes) Percent of State Listed Total (all classes) Percent of Class State Listed
Adverse

118

42

77%

91%

36%

Beneficial

18

3

12%

7%

17%

Variable

17

1

11%

2%

6%

total

153

46

a Listed in one or more Southwestern state(s) or Mexico as endangered, threatened, or sensitive..

 

Table 2: Impacts of Livestock Grazing on Individual Southwestern Bird Species
Common Name Scientific Name Listed 1 Note 2
Adversely Impacted by Grazing
     

Abert's Towhee

Pipilo aberti aberti

T

American Bittern

Botaurus lentiginosus

American Coot

Fulica americana americana

1

American Goldfinch

Carduelis tristis pallidus

T

American Kestrel

Falco sparverius sparverius

American Pipit

Anthus rubescens

1

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla tricolora

S

American Wigeon Duck

Anas americana

Aplomado Falcon

Falco femoralis septentrionalis

E

Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow

Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus

S

1

Baird's Sparrow

Ammodramus bairdii

T

Baltimore Oriole

Icterus galbula

Band-tailed Pigeon

Columba fasciata fasciata

Barn Owl

Tyto alba pratincola

S

Bell's Vireo

Vireo bellii

T

Black Rail

Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus

S

1

Black-capped Gnatcatcher

Polioptila nigriceps

S

Black-chinned Hummingbird

Archilochus alexandri

1

Blue Grouse

Dendragapus obscurus obscurus

Blue-winged Teal Duck

Anas discors discors

Bobolink

Dolichonyx oryzivorus

S

Botteri's Sparrow

Aimophila botterii arizonae

Brewer's Sparrow

Spizella breweri

2

Broad-tailed Hummingbird

Selasphorus platycercus platycercus

1

Brown Thrasher

Toxostoma rufum longicauda

Buff-collared Nightjar

Caprimulgus ridgwayi ridgwayi

E

Bullock's Oriole

Icterus bullockii

Burrowing Owl

Athene cunicularia hypugaea

S

2

Bushtit

Psaltriparus minimus

1

Calliope Hummingbird

Stellula calliope

Canada Goose

Branta canadensis

Canvasback Duck

Aythya valisineria

1

Carolina Wren

Thryothorus ludovicianus

Cassin's Finch

Carpodacus cassinii

Cassin's Sparrow

Aimophila cassinii

Cattle Egret

Bubulcus ibis ibis

1

Cedar Waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum

T

Chestnut-collared Longspur

Calcarius ornatus

Chipping Sparrow

Spizella passerina arizonae

Cinnamon Teal Duck

Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium

Common Black-hawk

Buteogalus anthracinus anthracinus

T

Common Moorhen

Gallinula chloropus cachinnans

1

Common Snipe

Gallinago gallinago delicata

1

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

Dickcissel

Spiza americana

Eastern Meadowlark

Sturnella magna lilianae

Elegant Trogon

Trogon elegans canescens

E

Ferruginous Hawk

Buteo regalis

T

2

Flammulated Owl

Otus flammeolus

1

Fox Sparrow

Passerella iliaca

Gadwall Duck

Anas strepera

Gould's Wild Turkey

Meleagris gallopavo mexicana

T

Grasshopper Sparrow

Ammodramus savannarum perpallidus

Gray Catbird

Dumetella carolinensis ruficrissa

S

Gray Vireo

Vireo vicinior

T

Great Egret

Ardea alba egretta

S

Greater Scaup Duck

Aythya marila nearctica

1

Green-winged Teal Duck

Anas crecca carolinensis

Horned Lark

Eremophila alpestris

House Sparrow

Passer domesticus

King Rail

Rallus elegans

1

Lark Bunting

Calamospiza melanocorys

Least Bittern

Ixobrychus exilis exilis

T

Lesser Prairie-chicken

Tympanuchus pallidicinctus

T

Lesser Scaup Duck

Aythya affinis

Lincoln's Sparrow

Melospiza lincolnii

Long-billed Curlew

Numenius americanus americanus

S

2

Macgillivray's Warbler

Oporornis tolmiei

Mallard Duck

Anas platyrhynchos

Marsh Wren

Cistothorus palustris

1

McCown's Longspur

Calcarius mccownii

Mexican Spotted Owl

Strix occidentalis lucida

T

Northern Beardless Tyrannulet

Camptostoma imberbe ridgwayi

E

Northern Bobwhite Quail

Colinus virginianus

1

New Mexico Sharp-tailed Grouse

Tympanuchus phasianellus hueyi

Northern Cardinal

Cardinalis cardinalis

Northern Goshawk

Accipiter gentilis

T

Northern Harrier

Circus cyaneus hudsonius

T

Northern Pintail Duck

Anas acuta

Northern Shoveler Duck

Anas clypeata

Purple Gallinule

Porphyrula martinica

1

Redhead Duck

Aythya americana

Red-tailed Hawk

Buteo jamaicensis

Red-winged Blackbird

Agelaius phoeniceus

Ring-necked Duck

Aythya collaris

Rose-throated Becard

Pachyramphus aglaiae

T

Rough-legged Hawk

Buteo lagopus johannis

1

Ruddy Duck

Oxyura jamaicensis rubida

Sage Grouse

Centrocercus urophasianus

S

1

Savannah Sparrow

Passerculus sandwichensis

Sedge Wren

Cistothorus platensis stellaris

Short-eared Owl

Asio flammeus flammeus

T

Snowy Owl

Nyctea scandiaca

Sora

Porzana carolina

1

Sprague's Pipit

Anthus spragueii

S

Southwest Willow Flycatcher

Empidonax traillii extimus

E

Swainson's Hawk

Buteo swainsoni

S

Thick-billed Kingbird

Tyrannus crassirostris

E

Upland Sandpiper

Bartramia longicauda

Varied Bunting

Passerina versicolor

T

Veery

Catharus fuscescens salicicola

S

Vesper Sparrow

Pooecetes gramineus

Violet-crowned Hummingbird

Amazilia violiceps ellioti

T

Virginia Rail

Rallus limicola limicola

1

Western Least Bittern

Ixobrychus exilis hesperis

S

Western Meadowlark

Sturnella neglecta

White-crowned Sparrow

Zonotrichia leucophrys

White-eared Hummingbird

Hylocharis leucotis borealis

T

White-tailed Ptarmigan

Lagopus leucurus altipetens

E

Wild Turkey

Meleagris gallopavo

Willow Flycatcher

Empidonax traillii

Wilson's Phalarope

Phalaropus tricolor

1

Wilson's Warbler

Wilsonia pusilla

Winter Wren

Troglodytes troglodytes

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus americanus occidentalis

E

Yellow-headed Blackbird

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus

1

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Dendroica coronata

Beneficially Impacted by Grazing

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

T

Black-throated Sparrow

Amphispiza bilineata

2

Brewer's Blackbird

Euphagus cyanocephalus

2

Brown-headed Cowbird

Molothrus ater

2

Common Nighthawk

Chordeiles minor

Golden Eagle

Aquila chrysaetos canadensis

E

Groove-billed Ani

Crotophaga sulcirostris

House Wren

Troglodytes aedon parkmannii

Killdeer

Charadrius vociferus vociferus

Lark Sparrow

Chondestes grammacus strigatus

Lewis's Woodpecker

Melanerpes lewis

Mountain Bluebird

Sialia currucoides

Mountain Plover

Charadrius montanus

T

Northern Mockingbird

Mimus polyglottos leucopterus

Pine Siskin

Carduelis pinus pinus

Sage Sparrow

Amphispiza belli nevadensis

Scaled Quail

Callipepla squamata pallida

Violet-green Swallow

Tachycineta thalassina lepida

Variably Impacted by Grazing

Black-headed Grosbeak

Pheucticus melanocephalus

Clay-colored Sparrow

Spizella pallida

Eastern Kingbird

Tyrannus tyrannus

Gilded Flicker

Colaptes chrysoides

Leconte's Sparrow

Ammodramus leconteii

Loggerhead Shrike

Lanius ludovicianus

S

Mourning Dove

Zenaida macroura

Northern Flicker

Colaptes auratus

Red-naped Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus nuchalis

Sage Thrasher

Oreoscoptes montanus

Song Sparrow

Melospiza melodia

Spotted Towhee

Pipilo maculatus

Tree Swallow

Tachycineta bicolor

Warbling Vireo

Vireo gilvus swainsonii

Western Tanager

Piranga ludoviciana

Western Wood Pewee

Contopus sordidulus

Yellow Warbler

Dendroica petechia

1 Listed in one or more Southwestern state(s) or Mexico. Highest listing shown: (E) endangered, (T) threatened, (S) sensitive

2 The impact assigned in this report varies from the BISON-M assigned impact as follows: (1) In the absence of other supporting information in the "Life History" and "Management Practices" sections of the BISON-M listing, a rating of "Beneficial" for "Livestock grazing; controlled (vs un-controlled)" was interpreted to mean that less adverse impact is better than greater adverse impact, and therefore beneficial in a relative sense whereas it is adverse in an absolute sense. These species were placed in the "Adversely Impacted" section of this report. (2) BISON-M assigned an impact of "variable" but other information contained in the "Life History" and "Management Practices" sections of the BISON-M listing indicated that the impact of grazing is most probably either adverse or beneficial as shown in this report.


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