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SEVENTY OF ARIZONA'S 116 STATE THREATENED OR ENDANGERED SPECIES HAVE CATTLE GRAZING AS A CAUSAL FACTOR IN THEIR IMPERILMENT

by Robert Witzeman, March 2001


There are 116 animals in Arizona listed as threatened or endangered by the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD) - "Wildlife of Special Concern in Arizona," draft, Dec. 13, 1996. Seventy of these animals have determinations of grazing as an adverse impact - page references are cited from the AGFD report). While some of these species may be common elsewhere, their survival in Arizona is the reason for their inclusion. Sixteen additional fish and herps have adverse grazing determinations according to other authorities.

Grazing as an impact in endangerment of 23 out of 29 of Arizona's T&E listed birds:
1. American Bittern - "riparian overgrazing" p.24 (AGFD)
2. Least Bittern - "riparian overgrazing" p. 24 (AGFD)
3. Bald Eagle "loss of…riparian…habitats" p. 25 (AGFD)
4. Swainson's Hawk - "grazing practices" p. 26 (AGFD)
5. Ferruginous Hawk - "prairie dog control programs" by ranchers p. 26 (AGFD)
6. Northern Aplomado Falcon EXTIRPATED - "reduce cattle grazing" p. 26 (AGFD)
7. Masked Bobwhite EXTIRPATED - "overgrazing" p. 27 (AGFD)
8. Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo "overgrazing" p. 28 (AGFD)
9. Cactus Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl "manage grazing" p 28 (AGFD)
10. Elegant Trogon - "riparian and adjacent slope grazing" p. 29 (AGFD)
11. Green Kingfisher - "upland grazing" p. 29 (AGFD)
12. SW Willow Flycatcher - "overgrazing in riparian habitats" 30 (AGFD)
13. Buff-breasted Flycatcher - "fire suppression" [overgrazing a factor in fire suppression] p. 30 (AGFD)
14. Thick-billed Kingbird - "overgrazing" p. 30 (AGFD)
15. Rose-throated Becard - "overgrazing" p. 31 (AGFD)
16. Azure Bluebird - "overgrazing" p. 31 (AGFD)
17. Veery - "riparian overgrazing" p. 31 (AGFD)
18. Swainson's Thrush - "riparian grazing" p. 31 (AGFD
19. Gray Catbird - "overgrazing by livestock" p. 32 (AGFD)
20. Sprague's Pipit - "overgrazing" p. 32 (AGFD)
21. Baird's Sparrow - "overgrazing" p. 32 (AGFD)
22. Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow - "reduce cattle grazing" p. 33 (AGFD)
23. Five-striped Sparrow - "overgrazing of slopes & canyons" 33 (AGFD)

Grazing as an impact in endangerment of 21 out of 25 of Arizona's T&E listed Native Fish:
1. Mexican Stoneroller - "habitat loss and degradation due to overgrazing" p. 9 (AGFD)
2.Yaqui Shiner - "habitat loss and degradation due to overgrazing" p. 9 (AGFD)
3. Sonora Chub - "Channel degradation, siltation, and water pollution caused primarily by livestock overgrazing" p. 10 (AGFD)
4. Gila Chub - grazing a factor. W.L. Minckley
5. Yaqui Chub - "habitat loss and degradation due to overgrazing" p. 11 (AGFD
6. Roundtail Chub - grazing a factor W.L Minckley
7. Virgin Chub - grazing a factor W.L. Minckley
8. Roundtail Chub - grazing a factor W.L. Minckley
9. Virgin Spinedace - grazing a factor W.L. Minckley
10. Little Colorado Spinedace - grazing a factor W.L. Minckley
11. Spikedace - grazing a factor W.L. Minckley
12. Loach Minnow - grazing a factor W.L. Minckley
13. Yaqui Sucker - "habitat loss and degradation due to overgrazing" p. 14 (AGFD)
14. Yaqui Catfish - EXTIRPATED "habitat degradation due to overgrazing" p. (AGFD)
15. Apache Trout - "erosion, sedimentation" [grazing a factor] p. 15 (AGFD)
16. Gila Trout - "erosion, sedimentation" [grazing a factor] p. 16 (AGFD)
17. Quitobaquito Pupfish - grazing a factor W.L. Minckley
18. Gila Topminnow - grazing a factor W.L. Minckley
19. Yaqui Topminnow - "habitat loss and degradation due to overgrazing" p. 17 (AGFD)
20. Monkey Springs Pupfish - EXTINCT grazing a factor W.L. Minckley

Grazing as a factor in the endangerment of 9 of Arizona's 20 T&E listed herpetiformes:
1. Plains Leopard Frog - grazing a factor - others
2. Chiricahua Leopard Frog - others
3. Northern Leopard Frog - others
4. Lowland Leopard Frog - others
5. Desert Tortoise - "overgrazing" p. 21 (AGFD)
6. Bunch Grass Lizard - "disappears from sites that are heavily grazed" p. 22 (AGFD)
7. Ridgenose Rattlesnake - "overgrazing" p. 23 (AGFD)
8. Massasauga - "grazing reduction of bunchgrass cover" p. 23 (AGFD)
9. Mexican Garter Snake - "loss of cienegas and other preferred wetland habitats" p. 23 (AGFD)

Grazing as a factor in the endangerment of 14 of Arizona's 21 T&E listed mammals
1. Water Shrew - "intense high elevation grazing along streambanks" p. 34 (AGFD)
2. Western Red Bat - "loss of riparian and other broad-leaved deciduous forest due to trampling of stream banks and increased erosion associated with grazing…" p. 35 (AGFD)
3. Western Yellow Bat - "loss and degradation of riparian woodlands due to trampling of stream banks and increased erosion associated with grazing…" p. 35 (AGFD)
4. Black-tailed Prairie Dog - EXTIRPATED "by livestock industry" p. 36 (AGFD)
5. New Mexican Banner-tailed Kangeroo Rat - "intense livestock grazing" p. 37 (AGFD)
6. Hualapai Mexican Vole - "grazing" p. 37 (AGFD)
7. Navajo Mexican Vole - "grazing by livestock" p. 37 (AGFD)
8. Mesquite mouse - "livestock grazing" p. 37 (AGFD)
9. Meadow Jumping Mouse - "intense livestock grazing" p. 38 (AGFD)
10. Mexican Wolf - "extirpated…by livestock industry" p. 38 (AGFD)
11. Grizzly Bear - "conflicts with humans and livestock industry" p. 38 (AGFD)
12. Black-footed Ferret - "control programs…livestock industry" p. 39 (AGFD)
13. Jaguar - "conflicts with livestock industry" p. 39 (AGFD)
14. Sonoran Pronghorn - "livestock grazing" p. 39 (AGFD)

Grazing as a factor in the endangerment of 4 of Arizona's 21 T&E listed invertebrates
1. Yavapai Mountain Snail - "livestock grazing" p. 5 (AGFD)
2. Bylas Springsnail - "livestock grazing" p. 6 (AGFD)
3. Grand Wash Springsnail - " livestock use" p. 6 (AGFD)
4. Three Forks Springsnail - "habitat degradation due to livestock" p. 7 (AGFD)

Summary:
23 out of 29 birds
20 out of 25 fish
9 out of 20 herpetiformes
14 out of 21 mammals
4 out of 21 invertebrates
70 out of 116 ARIZONA T&E SPECIES IMPACTED ADVERSELY BY LIVESTOCK GRAZING